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Test Beds

Human Assist Devices - Fluid Powered Ankle-Foot Orthosis (Test Bed 6)

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Prof. Elizabeth Hsiao-Wecksler, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Statement of Test Bed Goals

The goal of this test bed is to drive the development of enabling fluid power technologies to:

  1. Miniaturize fluid power systems for use in novel, human-scale, untethered devices that operate in the 10 to 100 W range.
  2. Determine whether the energy/weight and power/weight advantages of fluid power continue to hold for very small systems operating in the low power range, with the added constraint that the system must be acceptable for use near the body.

Human assist devices developed in TB6 provide functional assistance while meeting these additional requirements: (1) operate in the 10 to 100 W target power range, (2) add less than 1 kg of weight to a given segment of the body, excluding the power supply, and be designed to minimize physical interference during use, and (3) provide assistance from 1 to 8 hours. The focus of this test bed is the development of novel ankle-foot-orthoses (AFOs) to assist gait. An AFO with its stringent packaging constraints was selected because the ankle joint undergoes cyclic motion with known dynamic profiles, and requires angle, torque, and power ranges that fit within the test bed goals.

Test Bed’s Role in Support of the Strategic Plan

This test bed facilitates the creation of miniature fluid power systems by pushing the practical limits of weight, power and duration for compact, untethered, wearable fluid power systems. This test bed benefits society by creating human-scaled fluid power devices to assist people with daily activities and is creating new market opportunities for fluid power, including opportunities in medical devices.

Description and Explanation of Research Approach

Problem Statement: In the US alone, individuals who suffer from or have been affected by stroke (4.7M), polio (1M), multiple sclerosis (400K), cerebral palsy (100K) or acute trauma could benefit from a portable, powered, daily wear lower limb orthoses [1]. For individuals with impaired ankle function, current solutions are passive braces that provide only motion control and joint stability. These designs often fail to restore normal ankle function because they lack the ability to actively modulate motion control during gait and cannot produce propulsion torque and power.

Challenges: The ideal AFO should be adaptable to accommodate a variety of functional deficits created by injury or pathology, while simultaneously being compact and light weight to minimize energetic impact to the wearer. These requirements illustrate the great technological challenges facing the development of non-tethered, powered AFOs. The core challenges that must be met to realize such a device are: (A) a compact power source capable of day scale operation, (B) compact and efficient actuators and transmission lines capable of providing desired assistive force, (C) component integration for reduced size and weight, and (D) control schemes that accomplish functional tasks during gait and effectively manage the human machine interface (HMI). Therefore, the development of light, compact, efficient, powered, un-tethered AFO systems has the potential to yield significant advancements in orthotic control mechanisms and clinical treatment strategies.

State-of-the-Art: Passive AFO designs are successfully used as daily wear devices because of the simplicity, compactness, and durability of the designs, but lack adaptability due to limited functionality. To date, powered AFOs have not been commercialized and exist as research laboratory devices constructed from mostly off-the-shelf components [2, 3].The size and power requirements of these components have resulted in systems that require tethered power supplies, control electronics, or both [4, 5].

Research Approach: We are following a roadmap for developing portable fluid powered AFO devices with increasing complexity and performance requirements. In 2008, the design and construction of an energy-harvesting AFO that selectively restricted joint motion using a pneumatically-driven locking mechanism was completed [6, 7]. The lessons learned during this design process were used to accelerate the design of a portable fluid powered AFO. Using a systems engineering approach, the fluid powered AFO system has been divided into four subsystems that align with our core system challenges: power supply, actuator/valving, structural shell, and control system (electronics, sensors, and HMI). The subsystems have target specifications that must be met to realize a fully functional device. The power supply must weigh < 500 g, produce at least 20 W of power, run continuously for ~ 1 hour, and be acceptable for use near the human body. The actuator and valving must weigh < 400g and provide a minimum of 10 Nm of assistive torque at a reasonable efficiency. The structural shell must weigh < 500 g, be wearable within a standard pair of slacks (fit inside a cylinder with 18 cm OD), and operate in direct contact with the body. The control system must control the deceleration of the foot at the start of stance, permit free ankle plantarflexion up to mid stance, generate a propulsive torque at terminal stance, and block plantarflexion during swing to prevent foot drop; all in a robust and user friendly manner. In 2008, University of Minnesota students were added to the test bed team to examine opportunities to increase propulsion torque and power through high pressure hydraulics. Over subsequent years, Illinois and Minnesota teams have been using the portable fluid powered AFO platform to explore lower pressure pneumatics and higher pressure hydraulics, respectively, as promising technology paths for tiny fluid power systems suitable for untethered human assist devices.

Gen 2.0 PPAFO

Gen 2.0 PPAFO-2

Gen 2.0 PPAFO: Includes elastomeric accumulator, revised valving, and new shell without
metal struts or medial side. Modular hardware can be swapped between different sized shells.


(references after [5] are from work directly supported by this test bed)

  1. Dollar, A.M. and H. Herr, "Lower Extremity Exoskeletons and Active Orthoses: Challenges and State-of-the-Art". Robotics, IEEE Transactions on, 24(1): 144-158, 2008.
  2. Ferris, D.P., J.M. Czerniecki, and B. Hannaford, "An ankle-foot orthosis powered by artificial pneumatic muscles". Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 21(2): 189-197, 2005.
  3. Krebs, H.I. and N. Hogan, "Therapeutic robotics: a technology push". Proceedings of the IEEE, 94(9): 1727-1738, 2006.
  4. Blaya, J.A. and H. Herr, "Adaptive control of a variable-impedance ankle-foot orthosis to assist drop-foot gait". IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 12(1): 24-31, 2004.
  5. Hollander, K.W., et al., "An efficient robotic tendon for gait assistance". J. Biomech. Eng., 128(5): 788-792, 2006.
  6. Chin, R., et al., "A pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis to prevent foot-drop". Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 6(19), 2009.
  7. Chin, R., E.T. Hsiao-Wecksler, and E. Loth, "Fluid-Power Harvesting by Under-Foot Bellows During Human Gait". Journal of Fluids Engineering, 134(8): 081101-7, 2012.
  8. Li, D.Y., et al., "Estimating System State During Human Walking With a Powered Ankle-Foot Orthosis". IEEE-ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 16(5): 835-844, 2011.
  9. Shorter, K.A., et al., "A portable powered ankle-foot orthosis for rehabilitation". J Rehabil Res Dev, 48(4): 459-72, 2011.
  10. Shorter, K.A., et al., "Modeling, control, and analysis of a robotic assist device". Mechatronics, 22(8): 1067-1077, 2012.
  11. Hsiao-Wecksler, E.T., et al., "Portable Active Fluid Powered Ankle-Foot Orthosis". Patent Pending, United States.
  12. Li, Y., et al. "Energy Efficiency Analysis of A Pneumatically-Powered Ankle-Foot Orthosis". in International Fluid Power Expo (IFPE). March 23-25, 2011. Las Vegas, Nevada.
  13. Boes, M.K., et al. "Functional Efficiency of a Portable Powered Ankle-Foot Orthosis". in IEEE 13th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR 2013). June 24-26. Seattle, WA.
  14. Li, Y.D. and E.T. Hsiao-Wecksler. "Gait Mode Recognition Using an Inertial Measurement Unit to Control an Ankle-Foot Orthosis". in 36th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, . August 15-18. Gainesville, FL.
  15. Li, Y.D. and E.T. Hsiao-Wecksler. "Gait Mode Recognition and Control for a Portable-Powered Ankle-Foot Orthosis". in IEEE 13th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR 2013). June 24-26. Seattle, WA.
  16. Petrucci, M.N., C.D. MacKinnon, and E.T. Hsiao-Wecksler. "Mechanical Modulation of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments of Gait Using a Portable Powered Ankle-Foot Orthosis". in IEEE 13th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR 2013). June 24-26. Seattle, WA.
  17. Xia, J. and W.K. Durfee, "Analysis of small-scale hydraulic actuation systems". ASME J Mechanical Design In Press.
  18. Xia, J., B. Newbauer, and W. Durfee. "Preliminary design of a hydraulic powered ankle foot orthosis". in IEEE 13th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR 2013). June 24-26. Seattle, WA.